Saturday, 17 February 2018
make happen your golden dreams
Saturday, 17 February 2018
make happen your golden dreams
Gold is known to mankind for more than six thousand years. Gold is known as a noble metal. The appeal of Gold is universal across humankind. Wars have been fought and empires have been toppled for Gold. Gold is a global currency. Gold has formed the backbone of global economic activities as a reserve currency over the last several centuries. Gold is the most liquid asset known to mankind and is en-cashable in any form, at anytime, anywhere in the world.
Pure gold is yellowish in color. The chemical symbol of gold is Au. The atomic number of gold is 79. The boiling point of gold is at 2856 degree Celsius and the melting point of gold is at 1064 degree Celsius. Gold comprises of 79 protons/electrons and 118 neutrons. The atomic weight of gold is 19.96655 atomic mass per unit. Gold is one of the heaviest metals known to mankind, the weight of gold is around 19.3 grams per cubic centimeter. The specific gravity of gold is 19.32.
Gold has unique properties and does not react with any natural element thus making it virtually indestructible. Gold is one of the most malleable and ductile metal. Gold is the most suitable metal for human adornment and gold has been the most favorite metal for jewellery fabrication among the jewelers. Gold has a rich history and finds a place in most of the religions across the world. Gold is known as an international hedge and has stood by human beings in times of crisis. Gold is inseparable from human past, present and future.
Gold is found both above and below the ground. Initially gold was discovered on riverbeds as nuggets. Currently major production of gold is achieved by underground mining and also through open cast mining. Gold is mined as an ore either in open cast mines or deep underground mines. Finding gold deposits and mining gold is a complex process. Gold is valued primarily for its rare availability. As a thumb rule, to get one part of gold about three hundred thousand parts of gold ore has to be collected and processed. The mined gold is melted to form dorey gold which is usually between 70% to 90% purity. The dorey gold is further refined into fine gold which is minted or casted in to tradable gold bullion bars of different denominations. Gold purity is denominated in carats and the absolute purity of gold is measured as 24 carats.
In the history of human kind about 1,25,000 tones of gold has been mined. Apart from investment and adornment gold is also used in various industries like dentistry, electronics etc. Major gold producing countries in the world are South Africa, Australia, United States of America, China, Russia, Peru and Indonesia. Currently a little over 2,600 tones of gold is mined per annum. The major gold consuming countries in the world are India, United States of America, Middle East, Turkey, Italy and UK. Gold is utilized in most of the countries across the world.
Some interesting facts about gold :
Diamond from the ancient Greek is "unbreakable", a metastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at standard conditions. Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. In particular, diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material. Those properties determine the major industrial application of diamond in cutting and polishing tools and the scientific applications in diamond knives and diamond anvil cells. Because of its extremely rigid lattice, it can be contaminated by very few types of impurities, such as boron and nitrogen. Small amounts of defects or impurities (about one per million of lattice atoms) color diamond blue (boron), yellow (nitrogen), brown (lattice defects), green (radiation exposure), purple, pink, orange or red. Diamond also has relatively high optical dispersion (ability to disperse light of different colors). Diamonds are made up of pure carbon atoms that exist deep in the ground, exposed to intense heat and pressure over billions of years. Over time, this pressure builds up and forces the diamonds and rocks up toward the surface in a volcanic-like explosion. The explosion creates a very deep, wide hole called a "pipe" into which most of the diamonds settle; these deposits of diamonds are known as primary deposits. Other diamonds are washed away by water or erosion, and often settle into the coastal waters of nearby bodies of water; these are alluvial deposits. These deposits occur in many places around the globe; however, the largest commercial deposits exist in Angola, Australia, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Russia and Zaire, which produce 80% of the world's diamonds.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it possesses the highest electrical conductivity of any element, the highest thermal conductivity of any metal and is the most reflective metal on the planet. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.
While silver has long been valued as a precious metal it is also used in currency coins, solar panels, water filtration, jewelry and ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils (hence the term silverware) and as an investment in the forms of coins and bullion. Silver is used industrially in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Its compounds are used in photographic film and X-rays. Dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings, catheters and other medical instruments.